Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes

Two of the main types of genes that play a role in cancer are oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes.

Oncogenes

Proto-oncogenes are genes that normally help cells grow. When a proto-oncogene mutates (changes) or there are too many copies of it, it becomes a “bad” gene that can turn on permanently when it’s not supposed to be. When this happens, the cell grows out of control, which can lead to cancer. This bad gene is called an oncogene.

It can be helpful to think of a cell as a car. For it to work properly, there must be ways to control how fast it goes. A proto-oncogene normally works much like an accelerator. It helps the cell to grow and divide. An oncogene could be compared to an accelerator that is stuck, causing the cell to divide uncontrollably.

Some cancer syndromes are caused by inherited mutations of proto-oncogenes that cause the oncogene to turn on (activate). But most cancer-causing mutations involving oncogenes are acquired, not inherited. They generally activate oncogenes by:

  • Chromosomal rearrangements: Chromosome changes that place one gene next to another, allowing one gene to turn on the other
  • Gene duplication – having extra copies of a gene, can lead to making too much of a certain protein

Tumour suppressor genes

Tumour suppressor genes are normal genes that slow cell division, repair DNA errors, or tell cells when to die (a process known as apoptosis, or programmed cell death). When tumour suppressor genes don’t work properly, cells can grow out of control, which can lead to cancer.

A Genprice Tumor Suppressor Gene is like the brake pedal on a car. It normally prevents the cell from dividing too quickly, much like a brake prevents a car from going too fast. When something goes wrong with the gene, such as a mutation, cell division can go out of control. An important difference between oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes is that oncogenes result from the activation (turned on) of proto-oncogenes, but tumour suppressor genes cause cancer when they are inactivated (turned off).

Inherited abnormalities of tumour suppressor genes have been found in some familial cancer syndromes. They cause certain types of cancer to run in families. But most tumour suppressor gene mutations are acquired, not inherited. For example, abnormalities in the TP53 gene (which codes for the p53 protein) have been found in more than half of human cancers. Acquired mutations of this gene appear in a wide range of cancers.

Addition and Deletion Mutations

Description

Mistakes occasionally do occur spontaneously during DNA replication, causing changes in the sequence of nucleotides. Such changes, or mutations, also can arise from radiation that causes damage to the nucleotide chain or from chemical poisons, such as those in cigarette smoke, that lead to errors during the DNA-copying process. Mutations come in various forms: a simple swap of one nucleotide for another; the deletion, insertion, or inversion of one to millions of nucleotides in the DNA of one chromosome; and translocation of a stretch of DNA from one chromosome to another.

Mutated genes that encode altered proteins or that cannot be controlled properly cause numerous inherited diseases. For example, sickle cell disease is attributable to a single nucleotide substitution in the haemoglobin gene, which encodes the protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells. The single amino acid change caused by the sickle cell mutation reduces the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Recent advances in detecting disease-causing mutations and in understanding how they affect cell functions offer exciting possibilities for reducing their often devastating effects.

What types of genetic variants are possible?

The DNA sequence of a gene can be altered in various ways. Genetic variants (also known as Addition and Deletion Mutations) can have a variety of health effects, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. Variant types include the following:

1. Substitution

This type of variant replaces one DNA building block (nucleotide) with another. Substitutional variants can be further classified by the effect they have on protein production from the altered gene.

  • Missense: A missense variant is a type of substitution in which the nucleotide change results in the replacement of one protein building block (amino acid) with another in the protein made from the gene. The amino acid change can alter the function of the protein.
  • Nonsense: A nonsense variant is another type of substitution. However, instead of causing an amino acid change, the altered DNA sequence results in a stop signal that prematurely tells the cell to stop building a protein. This type of variant results in a shortened protein that can malfunction, not work, or break down.

2. Insertion

An insertion changes the DNA sequence by adding one or more nucleotides to the gene. As a result, the protein made from the gene may not work properly.

3. Suppression

A deletion changes the DNA sequence by removing at least one nucleotide in a gene. Small deletions remove one or a few nucleotides within a gene, while larger deletions can remove an entire gene or several neighbouring genes. The removed DNA can alter the function of the affected protein(s).

4. Delete-Insert

This variant occurs when a deletion and an insertion occur at the same time at the same location in the gene. In a deletion-insertion variant, at least one nucleotide is removed and at least one nucleotide is inserted. However, the change must be complex enough to differ from a simple substitution. The resulting protein may not work properly. An insertion-deletion variant (dealings) may also be known as an insertion-deletion variant (indel).

5. Duplication

Duplication occurs when a stretch of one or more nucleotides in a gene is copied and repeated along with the original DNA sequence. This type of variant can alter the function of the protein made from the gene.

6. Investment

An inversion changes more than one nucleotide in a gene by replacing the original sequence with the same sequence in reverse order.

7. Frame change

A reading frame consists of groups of three nucleotides that each code for an amino acid. A frameshift variant occurs when there is an addition or loss of nucleotides that changes the grouping and changes the code for all subsequent amino acids. The resulting protein is usually nonfunctional. Insertions, deletions, and duplications can be frameshift variants.

8. Repeat expansion

Some regions of DNA contain short sequences of nucleotides that are repeated several times in a row. For example, a trinucleotide repeat is made up of sequences of three nucleotides and a tetranucleotide repeat is made up of sequences of four nucleotides. A repeat expansion is a variant that increases the number of times the short DNA sequence is repeated. This type of variant can cause the resulting protein to not work properly.

Genetic Engineering

Genetics

Genetics has come a long way since Gregor Mendel introduced his work on peas. Genetic techniques are now used throughout biology, and genetics has an impact on many aspects of life. Gentaur Genetics research frequently uses model systems, which consist of a well-characterized subset of organisms. Many of the Biotechnology Explorer™ modules also use model organisms, for example, the C. elegans Behavioral Kit and the pGLO™ Bacterial Transformation Kit. With these kits, students can gain experiences similar to those found in working research labs.

Genetic Engineering Applications

Genetic engineering means the manipulation of organisms to make useful products and has wide applications.

  • New DNA can be inserted into the host genome by first isolating and copying the genetic material of interest, using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence; or by synthesizing the DNA and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Genes can be removed, or “knocked out,” using a nuclease.
  • Gene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene and can be used to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, or introduce point mutations. Genetic engineering has applications in medicine, research, industry, and agriculture and can be used in a wide range of plants, animals, and microorganisms.
  • Genetic engineering has produced a variety of drugs and hormones for medical use. For example, one of its earliest uses in pharmaceuticals was the splicing of genes to make large amounts of insulin from cells of E. coli bacteria. Interferon, which is used to eliminate certain viruses and kill cancer cells, is also a product of genetic engineering, as are tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase, which are used to dissolve blood clots.
  • Another byproduct is a type of human growth hormone; it is used to treat dwarfism and is produced through genetically modified bacteria and yeasts. The evolving field of gene therapy involves the manipulation of human genes to treat or cure genetic diseases and disorders. Modified plasmids or viruses are often the messengers that deliver genetic material to the cells of the body, resulting in the production of substances that should correct the disease. Sometimes cells are genetically modified within the body; other times scientists modify them in the laboratory and return them to the patient’s body.
  • Since the 1990s, gene therapy has been used in clinical trials to treat diseases and conditions such as AIDS, cystic fibrosis, cancer, and high cholesterol. The drawbacks of gene therapy are that sometimes the person’s immune system destroys cells that have been genetically altered, and also that it is difficult to get the genetic material into enough cells to have the desired effect.

Recombinant DNA Technology Biochemicals

Many practical applications of recombinant DNA are found in human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, and bioengineering. Recombinant DNA technology is the latest biochemical assay to emerge to meet the need for specific DNA segments. In this process, the surrounding DNA of an existing cell is cut into the desired number of segments so that it can be copied millions of times.

Recombinant DNA technology modifies microbial cells to produce foreign proteins, and its success depends solely on the precise reading of equivalent genes created with the help of bacterial cell machinery. This process has been responsible for driving many advances related to modern molecular biology. The last two decades of studies of cloned DNA sequences have revealed detailed knowledge about gene structure as well as its organization.

It has provided clues about the regulatory pathways with the help of which cells control gene expression in countless cell types, especially in those organisms that have a body plan with a basic structure of vertebrae. Recombinant DNA technology, in addition to being an important scientific research tool, has also played a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, especially those belonging to genetic disorders.

Some of the recent advances made possible by recombinant DNA technology are:

1. Protein isolation in large quantities: Many recombinant products are now available, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Follistim AQ vial, growth hormone, insulin, and some other proteins.

2. Enable identification of mutations: Thanks to this technology, people can easily test for the presence of mutated proteins that can lead to breast cancer, neurofibromatosis, and retinoblastoma.

3. Diagnosis of hereditary disease carriers: Tests are now available to determine if a person is a carrier of the gene for cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs diseases, Huntington’s disease, or Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

4. Transfer of genes from one organism to another: Advanced gene therapy can benefit people with cystic fibrosis, vascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and specific types of cancer.

Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 archived DNA in blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue in two patients under antiretroviral therapy

Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 archived DNA in blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue in two patients under antiretroviral therapy

One of the approaches to remedy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the use of therapeutic vaccination. We have launched the Provir/Latitude 45 examine to establish conserved CTL epitopes in archived HIV-1 DNA based on the HLA class I alleles in aviremic patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART). A HIV-1 polypeptidic therapeutic vaccine primarily based on viral sequence knowledge obtained from circulating blood was proposed; right here, our intention was to check the proviral DNA in blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestine biopsies had been obtained from two HIV-1 contaminated patients under profitable antiretroviral therapy. Total DNA was extracted together with the proviral DNA. The HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was sequenced in each compartments utilizing subsequent technology sequencing adopted by single genome sequencing; phylogenetic bushes had been established and in contrast. The proviral sequences of each compartments intra-patient exhibited a really low genetic divergence whereas it was potential to distinguish the sequences inter-patients; single genome sequencing analysis of two {couples} of samples confirmed that there was no compartmentalization of the sequences intra-patient.

We conclude that, contemplating these two instances, the proviral DNA sequences in blood and GALT are comparable and that the epitope analysis of HIV-1 provirus in blood must be thought-about as related to that noticed in the GALT, a hard-to-reach main compartment, and can subsequently be used for therapeutic vaccine approaches. Phylogenetically corrected strategies recognized a complete of 161 HLA-associated polymorphisms; whereby Nef and Vpu had the very best (26.6%) and lowest (1.2%) proportion of amino acid websites related to HLA-class I alleles, respectively.

HIV-1 escapes by buying mutations that differentially affect the course of an infection. Unlike HIV-1 structural and enzymatic proteins, it stays elusive what extent the host immune-mediated choice stress influences the variability of the accent (Vif, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef) and regulatory (Tat and Rev) proteins. To tackle this, we analysed the viral sequences encoding accent and regulatory proteins from 446 HLA-typed, chronically HIV-1 subtype B-infected, and remedy naïve people in Japan. We noticed that Vpu and Vpr had been essentially the most and least polymorphic proteins with the common Shannon entropy scores of 0.63 and 0.38, respectively. These outcomes add additional perception on the position of HLA-mediated choice stress on HIV-1 sequence polymorphisms of HIV-1 accent and regulatory proteins.

Per-protocol analysis of the ZINC trial for HIV illness amongst alcohol customers
The Zinc for INflammation and Chronic illness in HIV (ZINC) trial randomized one who reside with HIV (PLWH) who have interaction in heavy ingesting to both each day zinc supplementation or placebo. The main end result was change in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) index, a predictor of mortality, between baseline and 18 months. Because adherence and follow-up had been suboptimal, the intention-to-treat analysis, which was not statistically important, could have underestimated the impact of the zinc supplementation. We estimated the per-protocol impact of zinc versus placebo in the ZINC trial (i.e., the impact that will have been noticed if all contributors had had excessive adherence and none was misplaced to follow-up).
Adherence was measured because the self-reported share of drugs taken in the earlier 6 weeks and assessed in any respect post-baseline visits. We used inverse chance weighting to estimate and examine the change in the VACS index at 18 months in the zinc and placebo teams, had all of the trial contributors had excessive adherence (i.e., cumulative adherence ≥80% at 18 months). To look at tendencies by stage of adherence, we rerun the analyses utilizing thresholds for prime adherence of 70% and 90% of common self-reported tablet protection. Overall, excessive adherence to zinc was related to a decrease VACS rating, however confidence intervals had been huge and crossed 0. Further research with a bigger pattern dimension are wanted to quantify the advantages of zinc supplementation in this inhabitants.
The estimated (95% confidence interval) change in the VACS index was – 2.16 (- 8.07, 3.59) and 5.84 (0.73, 11.80) under excessive adherence and no loss to follow-up in the zinc and placebo teams, respectively. The per-protocol impact estimate of the imply distinction in the change between the zinc and placebo teams was – 8.01 (- 16.42, 0.01), considerably bigger than the intention-to-treat impact distinction in change (- 4.68 (- 9.62, 0.25)), however it was nonetheless not statistically important. The imply distinction in the change between people in the zinc and placebo teams was – 4.07 (- 11.5, 2.75) and -12.34 (- 20.14, -4.14) for prime adherence outlined as 70% and 90% of tablet protection, respectively.
Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 archived DNA in blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue in two patients under antiretroviral therapy
Exclusion of patients residing with HIV from most cancers immune checkpoint inhibitor trials
Emerging retrospective and potential research point out that immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) may be protected and efficient most cancers remedies amongst individuals residing with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH), nevertheless this high-cancer-risk inhabitants has typically been excluded from groundbreaking most cancers ICI trials. Our examine aimed to characterize the present fee of exclusion and conditional inclusion of PLWH in most cancers ICI trials by tumor sort, trial part, and yr. MedicalTrials.gov most cancers ICI trials with deliberate begins between 1/1/2019 and 10/20/2020 had been recognized.
Based on trial eligibility standards, trials had been categorized as “excluded” if PLWH couldn’t enroll, “conditionally included” if solely PLWH with enough immune operate had been allowed, or “included/not specified” if HIV was not talked about in the eligibility standards. Trials from 2014 had been individually collected for comparability over time. The quantity of trials excluding PLWH had been in comparison with the included/not specified group utilizing Fisher’s precise take a look at. Of 809 trials analyzed from 2019 to 2020, 74.4% excluded, 6.9% conditionally included, and 18.7% included/didn’t specify PLWH. Early part trials excluded PLWH extra often than late part trials.

Acetylcholinesterase Activity Assay Kit - 100 Assays

AR4001-unit unit
EUR 317

Amplite™ Colorimetric Beta-Lactamase Activity Assay Kit

12551 200 Tests
EUR 393

EZScreen? Beta-Lactamase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit (384-well)

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HDAC Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Glucose Isomerase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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Factor XIIIa Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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Glyoxalase I Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Asparaginase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

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Glutathione Peroxidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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PAF Acetylhydrolase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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Peroxidase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

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Glucose Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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EUR 566

Factor XIa Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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EUR 615

Alkaline Sphingomyelinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K987-100
EUR 588

5?-Nucleotidase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K992-100
EUR 664

Factor XIIa Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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EUR 626

Plasma Kallikrein Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit

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EUR 582

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K756-100
EUR 479

Enolase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K691-100
EUR 794

Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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EUR 479

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K731-100
EUR 582

?-N-Acetylglucosaminidase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K733-100
EUR 490

Lipase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit II

K723-100
EUR 539

Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K660-100
EUR 697

Oxalate Decarboxylase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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EUR 485

Citrate Synthase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Gluconokinase (GntK) Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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Adenosine Deaminase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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Cytochrome Oxidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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Phosphoglycerate Kinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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EUR 586

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Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2206-100 100 assays
EUR 599

Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2210-100 100 assays
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Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor Screening Kit (Colorimetric)

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6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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HRV 3C Protease Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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Alpha-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Pyruvate Kinase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

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Xanthine Oxidase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

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GST Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit

55R-1353 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of GST activity in the research laboratory

Beta-Mannosidase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K2045-100 100 assays
EUR 551

Beta-Secretase Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K360-100
EUR 620

Beta-Secretase Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K2043-100 100 assays
EUR 641

Caspase-3 DEVD-R110 Fluorometric and Colorimetric Assay Kit (100 assays)

30008-2 1KIT
EUR 383
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

Caspase-8 IETD-R110 Fluorometric and Colorimetric Assay Kit (100 assays)

30011-2 1KIT
EUR 383
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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EUR 533

EZDetect? Aldo-keto Reductase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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human MMP-14 activity assay kit 96-assays

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human MMP-8 activity assay kit 96-assays

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human MMP-9 activity assay kit 96-assays

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mouse MMP-9 activity assay kit 96-assays

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human MMP-7 activity assay kit 96-assays

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OxiSelect Catalase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

STA-341 96 assays
EUR 676
Description: Catalase is a ubiquitous enzyme that destroys hydrogen peroxides formed during oxidative stress. Our OxiSelect Catalase Activity Assay Kits measure catalase activity in less than one hour from a variety of samples including blood, cells and tissues. Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 100 assays in a 96-well microtiter plate, or 50 assays in microcentrifuge tubes. This includes blanks, catalase standards and unknown samples. Direct spectrophotometric detection of catalase activity with ultraviolet light can cause interference from proteins and other biological components. The OxiSelect Catalase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric) utilizes visible light (520 nm), which reduces sample interference. The OxiSelect Catalase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric) provides a 40-fold increase in sensitivity compared to our colorimetric assay.

Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2075-500 500 assays
EUR 544

Glutathione Reductase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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EUR 528

Mutant Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (Mutant IDH) Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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EUR 566
The 2019-2020 trial cohort confirmed no important change in exclusion of PLWH in comparison with 2014. Despite growing proof for protected and efficient ICI use for PLWH, most most cancers ICI trials exclude PLWH and few research allow PLWH to take part, even when HIV is well-controlled.

Melatonin may decrease risk for and aid treatment of COVID-19 and other RNA viral infections

Melatonin may decrease risk for and aid treatment of COVID-19 and other RNA viral infections

A latest retrospective examine has supplied proof that COVID-19 an infection may be notably much less frequent in these utilizing supplemental melatonin. It is recommended that this phenomenon may mirror the truth that, by way of induction of silent info regulator 1 (Sirt1), melatonin can upregulate Ok63 polyubiquitination of the mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein, thereby boosting virally mediated induction of kind 1 interferons. Moreover, Sirt1 may improve the antiviral efficacy of kind 1 interferons by stopping hyperacetylation of excessive mobility group field 1 (HMGB1), enabling its retention within the nucleus, the place it promotes transcription of interferon-inducible genes.

This nuclear retention of HMGB1 may even be a mediator of the anti-inflammatory impact of melatonin remedy in COVID-19-complementing melatonin’s suppression of nuclear issue kappa B exercise and upregulation of nuclear issue erythroid 2-related issue 2. If these speculations are appropriate, a nutraceutical routine together with vitamin D, zinc and melatonin supplementation may have normal utility for the prevention and treatment of RNA virus infections, resembling COVID-19 and influenza.  Thirty-one circumstances (from January 2010 to December 2019) of oral Kaposi’s sarcoma in sufferers with HIV from 2 oral pathology facilities in Brazil had been reviewed, contemplating medical knowledge and correlation of viral load and lymphocyte rely with general survival.

Overall survival charges had been estimated by a Kaplan-Meier evaluation and in contrast utilizing a log-rank check. The components launched stepwise right into a Cox proportional hazard mannequin to establish the impartial predictors of survival. A P worth <.05 was thought-about vital.  Differentiation between relapse and reinfection in circumstances with tuberculosis (TB) recurrence has vital implications for public well being, particularly in sufferers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection.

We in contrast Mycobacterial Interspersed Repeat Unit (MIRU) typing and spoligotyping with entire genome sequencing (WGS) to distinguish between relapse and reinfection in sufferers (HIV-positive and HIV-negative) with TB recurrence. We additionally assessed the worth of WGS to trace acquired drug resistance in these with relapse after profitable treatment. Comparison of M. tuberculosis genomes indicated that 95% of TB recurrences within the HIV-negative cohort had been resulting from relapse, whereas the bulk of TB recurrences (75%) within the HIV-positive cohort was resulting from reinfection (P = 0.0001). New drug resistance mutations had been acquired in 5/24 circumstances (20.8%) that skilled relapse.

HIV Stigma, Homophobia, Sexual and Gender Minority Community Connectedness and HIV Testing Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men and Transgender People Who Have Sex with Men in Kazakhstan

Although HIV incidence is rising amongst homosexual, bisexual, and other males (MSM) and transgender individuals who have intercourse with males (TSM) in Kazakhstan, whether or not stigmatizing attitudes and connectedness are related to HIV testing on this area shouldn’t be identified. We analyzed knowledge from one-time interviews with 304 grownup MSM and TSM carried out 2018-2019 in three cities in Kazakhstan. Logistic regression decided whether or not HIV stigma, internalized homophobia, sexual and gender minority (SGM) connectedness predicted HIV testing (throughout the lifetime, previous 12 months, and previous 6 months) earlier than and after adjustment for sociodemographic traits.

In adjusted fashions, those that had ever examined reported decrease HIV stigma (aOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.91, P < .001) and larger connectedness (aOR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.29, P = .003) than those that had not; those that had ever examined reported decrease internalized homophobia within the unadjusted mannequin solely (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99, P = .01). Similar variations and tendencies had been present in fashions analyzing testing previously 12 months and previous 6 months. Addressing stigmatizing attitudes and connectedness may enhance uptake of HIV testing amongst MSM and TSM in Kazakhstan. Adult HBV-HIV co-infected sufferers from 8 North American websites had been enrolled on this NIH-funded potential observational examine (n=139). Demographic, medical, serological and virological knowledge had been collected at entry and each 24 weeks for ≤192 weeks.

Paired liver biopsies had been obtained at examine entry and at ≥three years of follow-up. Biopsies had been assessed by a central pathology committee utilizing Modified Ishak scoring system. Clinical consequence price and modifications in histology are reported. 80% of contributors reported ever receiving an HIV check. Gay-identified contributors reported much less HIV stigma and internalized homophobia in addition to better connectedness relative to these with bisexual or other identities.

Melatonin may decrease risk for and aid treatment of COVID-19 and other RNA viral infections

The position of contraception in stopping HIV-positive births: international estimates and projections

Meeting the contraceptive wants of girls residing with HIV (WLHIV) has main well being advantages for girls, along with being a key ingredient to stop mother-to-child HIV transmission. This evaluation will estimate the present quantity of toddler HIV infections prevented by contraception within the period of elevated HIV treatment protection and; 2) mannequin the extra HIV advantages of stopping unintended births to WLHIV. Secondary knowledge evaluation was carried out utilizing publicly obtainable knowledge from the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and Population Division, Demographic Health Surveys, and peer-review literature.
National knowledge from 70 international locations, that had a UNAIDS estimate for the quantity of WLHIV nationally, had been mixed into country-level fashions. Models estimated the present quantity of toddler HIV infections averted by contraception yearly and probably averted if unintended births to WLHIV had been prevented. Estimates have in mind being pregnant and stay beginning charges, contraceptive protection, contraceptive technique combine and failure charges, and HIV treatment protection throughout being pregnant to stop mom to baby transmission. Contraception use amongst WLHIV prevents an estimated 43,559 new toddler HIV infections yearly throughout 70 international locations.

D-Lactate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2213-100 100 assays
EUR 529

Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K726-500
EUR 550

Amplite™ Colorimetric D-Lactate Assay Kit

13811 200 Tests
EUR 306

Amplite™ Colorimetric L-Lactate Assay Kit

13815 200 Tests
EUR 306

EZScreen? Lactate Colorimetric Assay Kit (384 Well)

K951-384
EUR 555

Lactate Assay Kit

55R-1450 100 assays
EUR 844
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Lactate in the research laboratory

Lactate Assay Kit

55R-1469 100 assays
EUR 844
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Lactate in the research laboratory

Amplite™ Colorimetric D-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Assay Kit

13809 200 Tests
EUR 306

Amplite™ Colorimetric L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Assay Kit

13813 200 Tests
EUR 306

EZScreen? Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit (384-well)

K953-400
EUR 555

EnzyChrom Lactate Assay Kit

ECLC-100 100
EUR 426
Description: Quantitative determination of L-lactic acid by colorimetric (565nm) method. Procedure: 20 min. Kit size: 100 tests. Detection limit: 0.05 mM. Shelf life: 6 months. Shipping: on ice; storage: -20°C.

D-Lactate Assay Kit

55R-1490 100 assays
EUR 689
Description: Assay Kit for detection of D-Lactate in the research laboratory

Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay Kit

55R-1509 500 assays
EUR 758
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Lactate Dehydrogenase in the research laboratory

Lactate Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

MET-5013 100 assays
EUR 450
Description: Our Lactate Assay Kit measures L-lactate in biological samples. Lactate is first oxidized by lactate oxidase, yielding pyruvate and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide released from this reaction is specifically detected by either a colorimetric or fluorometric probe in a 1:1 ratio. Lactate levels in unknown samples are determined based on a lactate standard curve.

Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay Kit

abx096006-100Assays 100 Assays
EUR 347

Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay Kit

abx098441-Hitachi7170R132ml4R28ml4 Hitachi 7170; R1: 32ml×4 R2: 8ml×4
EUR 222

Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay Kit

abx098441-UniversalR160ml2R215ml2 Universal; R1: 60ml×2 R2: 15ml×2
EUR 222

Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay Kit

abx098441-UniversalR160ml2R230ml1 Universal; R1: 60ml×2 R2: 30ml×1
EUR 222

Lactate Fluorometric Assay Kit

K2140-100 100 assays
EUR 641

Caspase 2 Colorimetric Assay Kit

55R-1279 25 assays
EUR 303
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Capase 2 activity in the research laboratory

Caspase-2 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K117-100
EUR 468

Caspase-2 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K117-200
EUR 615

Caspase-2 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K117-25
EUR 213

Caspase-2 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K117-400
EUR 958

Caspase-2 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2017-100 100 assays
EUR 529

Caspase-2 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2017-200 200 assays
EUR 725

Caspase-2 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2017-25 25 assays
EUR 251

Caspase-2 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2017-400 400 assays
EUR 1156

Tie-2/ Rat Tie- 2 ELISA Kit

ELA-E0126r 96 Tests
EUR 886

Anti-Tie-2 antibody

STJ96015 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Tie-2.

Anti-Tie-2 antibody

STJ96016 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Tie-2.

2-Phosphoglycerate Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K778-100
EUR 615

EnzyChrom D-Lactate Assay Kit

EDLC-100 100
EUR 426
Description: Quantitative determination of D-lactic acid by colorimetric (565nm) method. Procedure: 20 min. Kit size: 100 tests. Detection limit: 0.05 mM. Shelf life: 6 months. Shipping: on ice; storage: -20°C.

EnzyFluo D-Lactate Assay Kit

EFDLC-100 100
EUR 426
Description: Quantitative determination of D-lactate (lactic acid) by fluorimetric (530/585 nm) method. Procedure: 60 min. Kit size: 100 tests. Detection limit: 1 µM . Shelf life: 6 months. Shipping: on ice; storage: -20°C.

EnzyFluo L-Lactate Assay Kit

EFLLC-100 100
EUR 426
Description: Quantitative determination of L-lactate (lactic acid) by fluorimetric (530/585 nm) method. Procedure: 60 min. Kit size: 100 tests. Detection limit: 1 µM . Shelf life: 6 months. Shipping: on ice; storage: -20°C.

PicoProbe? Lactate Fluorometric Assay Kit

K638-100
EUR 620

RealQuant Lactate Dehydroganase Assay Kit

L0100-010 100 Assays
EUR 583

Caspase-3 DEVD-R110 Fluorometric and Colorimetric Assay Kit (100 assays)

30008-2 1KIT
EUR 383
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

Caspase-8 IETD-R110 Fluorometric and Colorimetric Assay Kit (100 assays)

30011-2 1KIT
EUR 383
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

Polyclonal Goat anti-GST μ-form

GST-ANTI-2 50 uL
EUR 280

Glutathione Colorimetric Assay Kit

55R-1351 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Glutathione activity in the research laboratory

Methylglyoxal Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K500-100
EUR 528

Salicylate Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K494-100
EUR 544

Cobalt Colorimetric Assay Kit

K505-100
EUR 457

Histamine Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K506-100
EUR 501

Nickel Colorimetric Assay Kit

K510-100
EUR 457

Chloride Colorimetric Assay Kit

K530-100
EUR 359

Lithium Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K545-100
EUR 620

Hydroxyproline Colorimetric Assay Kit

K555-100
EUR 599

Glutamine Colorimetric Assay Kit

K556-100
EUR 588

Tyrosine Colorimetric Assay Kit

K573-100
EUR 550

Formate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K653-100
EUR 582

Isocitrate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K656-100
EUR 474

Acetate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K658-100
EUR 512

Phosphoglucomutase Colorimetric Assay Kit

K774-100
EUR 615

Hexokinase Colorimetric Assay Kit

K789-100
EUR 599

Methanol Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K898-100
EUR 664

Taurine Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K988-100
EUR 648

Chitosan Colorimetric Assay Kit

K995-100
EUR 566

Asparagine Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K736-100
EUR 610

Phenylalanine Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K481-100
EUR 468

Acetoacetate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K650-100
EUR 773

Malate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K637-100
EUR 490

Glutamate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K629-100
EUR 539

Fumarate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K633-100
EUR 512

Heme Colorimetric Assay Kit

K672-100
EUR 490

Hemoglobin Colorimetric Assay Kit

K219-200
EUR 381

Glutathione Colorimetric Assay Kit

K261-100
EUR 512

Fructosamine Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K450-100
EUR 620

Fructose Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K439-100
EUR 501

Magnesium Colorimetric Assay Kit

K385-100
EUR 479

Urea Colorimetric Assay Kit

K375-100
EUR 539

Ammonia Colorimetric Assay Kit

K370-100
EUR 539

Iron Colorimetric Assay Kit

K390-100
EUR 550

Sodium Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K391-100
EUR 773

Calcium Colorimetric Assay Kit

K380-250
EUR 430

Zinc Colorimetric Assay Kit

K387-100
EUR 490

AMP Colorimetric Assay Kit

K229-100
EUR 577

Phosphate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K410-500
EUR 316

Glycogen Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5022 100 assays
EUR 479
Description: Our Glycogen Assay Kit (Fluorometric) measures glycogen in serum, plasma, urine, lysates, and cell culture supernatants. First, glycogen is broken down into glucose monomers by amyloglucosidase. Glucose is then oxidized by glucose oxidase, producing D-gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide reacts specifically with the kit?s Fluorometric Probe and is detected at ex. 530-570 nm/em. 590-600 nm. Glycogen levels in unknown samples are determined based on the provided glycogen standard curve.

Starch Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5025 100 assays
EUR 479
Description: Our Starch Assay Kit (Colorimetric) measures starch in food samples. First, starch is broken down into glucose monomers by amyloglucosidase. Glucose is then oxidized by glucose oxidase, producing D-gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide reacts specifically with the kit?s Colorimetric Probe and is detected with a spectrophotometric plate reader at 540-570nm. Starch levels in unknown samples are determined based on the provided starch standard curve.

Choline Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5043 96 assays
EUR 473
Description: Cell Biolabs? Choline Assay Kits are simple assays that measure the amount of choline present in a variety of sample types in a convenient 96-well microtiter plate format.  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 96 assays, including blanks, acetylcholine standards and samples.  Sample choline concentrations are determined by comparison with a known choline standard and measured on a colorimetric plate reader.

Glutamate Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5080 200 assays
EUR 490

Acetylcholine Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

STA-603 96 assays
EUR 473
Description: Cell Biolabs? Acetylcholine Assay Kits are a simple fluorometric or colorimetric assay that measures the amount of acetylcholine present in plasma or serum, tissue homogenates, or cell suspensionsin a 96-well microtiter plate format.  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 96 assays, including blanks, acetylcholine standards and samples.  Sample acetylcholine concentrations are determined by comparison with a known acetylcholine standard.

Alcohol Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

STA-620 100 assays
EUR 519
Description: Cell Biolabs? Alcohol Assay Kits measure primary alcohols by an enzymatic, oxidation reaction, producing hydrogen peroxide which reacts with the kit?s probe. These assay kits come in either colorimetric or fluorometric. The colorimetric assay has a detection sensitivity limit of ~30 µM (0.0001 % w/v) and the fluorometric has a detection sensitivity limit of ~15 µM (0.00007 % w/v). They can detect various primary alcohols and are not ethanol specific.

Glucose Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

STA-680 500 assays
EUR 537
Description: The Glucose Assay Kit (Colorimetric) measures total glucose present in food or biological samples. Glucose Oxidase first oxidizes glucose, generating hydrogen peroxide that is detected by a colorimetric probe.

Calcium Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2067-250 250 assays
EUR 432

Magnesium Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2068-100 100 assays
EUR 502

Iron Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2069-100 100 assays
EUR 544

Phosphate Colorimetric Assay Kit

k2074-500 500 assays
EUR 293

Hydroxyproline Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2083-100 100 assays
EUR 599

Glutamine Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2084-100 100 assays
EUR 641

Glutathione Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2106-100 100 assays
EUR 529

Glutamate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2133-100 100 assays
EUR 544

Malate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2139-100 100 assays
EUR 502

Hexokinase Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2179-100 100 assays
EUR 627

Acetoacetate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2204-100 100 assays
EUR 795

Acetate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2209-100 100 assays
EUR 529

Heme Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2215-100 100 assays
EUR 502

D-2-Hydroxyglutarate (D2HG) Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K213-100
EUR 675

PicoProbe? Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity Assay Kit

K730-500
EUR 582

PicoProbe? D-Lactate Fluorometric Assay Kit

K668-100
EUR 539

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Activity Assay Kit

K2228-500 500 assays
EUR 529

Caspase 3 Colorimetric Assay Kit

55R-1270 25 assays
EUR 277
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Capase 3 activity in the research laboratory

Caspase 1 Colorimetric Assay Kit

55R-1273 25 assays
EUR 277
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Capase 1 activity in the research laboratory

Caspase 8 Colorimetric Assay Kit

55R-1275 25 assays
EUR 277
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Capase 8 activity in the research laboratory

Caspase 6 Colorimetric Assay Kit

55R-1277 25 assays
EUR 284
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Capase 6 activity in the research laboratory

Caspase 9 Colorimetric Assay Kit

55R-1281 25 assays
EUR 296
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Capase 9 activity in the research laboratory

Caspase 5 Colorimetric Assay Kit

55R-1283 25 assays
EUR 303
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Capase 5 activity in the research laboratory

Caspase 10 Colorimetric Assay Kit

55R-1285 25 assays
EUR 303
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Capase 10 activity in the research laboratory

Caspase 4 Colorimetric Assay Kit

55R-1287 25 assays
EUR 312
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Capase 4 activity in the research laboratory

Nitric Oxide Colorimetric Assay Kit

55R-1352 200 assays
EUR 689
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Nitric Oxide activity in the research laboratory

GST Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit

55R-1353 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of GST activity in the research laboratory

D-Sorbitol Colorimetric Assay Kit

55R-1473 100 assays
EUR 809
Description: Assay Kit for detection of D-Sorbitol in the research laboratory

Ammonia Colorimetric Assay Kit II

K470-100
EUR 539

Glucose Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K606-100
EUR 512

Adipogenesis Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K610-100
EUR 430

Pyruvate Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K609-100
EUR 610

Bacterial Counting Colorimetric Assay Kit

K511-2500
EUR 620

Bacterial Counting Colorimetric Assay Kit

K511-500
EUR 349

Phenolic Compounds Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K527-200
EUR 550

Aspartate Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K552-100
EUR 490

Albumin (BCG) Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K554-100
EUR 294

Transglutaminase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K571-100
EUR 718

Phosphatidylcholine Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K576-100
EUR 490

Fumarase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K596-100
EUR 653

Sphingomyelinase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K599-100
EUR 446

Sphingomyelin Quantification Colorimetric Assay Kit

K600-100
EUR 479

Citrate Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K655-100
EUR 539

Invertase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K674-100
EUR 490

Sulfatase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K675-100
EUR 653

Glucose Uptake Colorimetric Assay Kit

K676-100
EUR 1121

Arginase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K755-100
EUR 539

Acetylcholinesterase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K764-100
EUR 550

Trypsin Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K771-100
EUR 452

Collagenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K792-100
EUR 408

Cell Transformation Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K921-100
EUR 620

Plasmin Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K945-100
EUR 446

Cholinesterase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K975-100
EUR 642

Methyltransferase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K986-100
EUR 648

Tyrosinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K742-100
EUR 582

L-Arginine Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K749-100
EUR 610

?-Glucosidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K690-100
EUR 550

Aconitase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K716-100
EUR 501

Lipase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K722-100
EUR 512

Amylase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K711-100
EUR 408

Lysophosphatidylcholine Assay Kit (Colorimetric/Fluorometric)

K735-100
EUR 610

Glycogen Colorimetric Assay Kit II

K648-100
EUR 620

Alanine Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K652-100
EUR 479

Lactose Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K624-100
EUR 512

Creatinine Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K625-100
EUR 468

Sucrose Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K626-100
EUR 501

Maltose Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K628-100
EUR 512

Creatine Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K635-100
EUR 479

Sarcosine Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K636-100
EUR 479

Total Carbohydrate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K645-100
EUR 582
Countries with the biggest quantity of toddler infections averted by contraception included South Africa (9441), Nigeria (4195), Kenya (3508), Zimbabwe (2586), and India (2145). Preventing unintended births to WLHIV may avert an extra 43,768 new toddler infections per 12 months, with the best potential good points to be made in South Africa (12,036), Nigeria (2770), Uganda (2552), and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2324). Contraception continues to play an integral position in international HIV prevention efforts within the period of growing HIV treatment protection, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Broad contraceptive availability, elevated contraceptive voluntarism and technique combine are key parts to stopping unintended births and ending new toddler HIV infections worldwide.