Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 archived DNA in blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue in two patients under antiretroviral therapy

Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 archived DNA in blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue in two patients under antiretroviral therapy

One of the approaches to remedy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the use of therapeutic vaccination. We have launched the Provir/Latitude 45 examine to establish conserved CTL epitopes in archived HIV-1 DNA based on the HLA class I alleles in aviremic patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART). A HIV-1 polypeptidic therapeutic vaccine primarily based on viral sequence knowledge obtained from circulating blood was proposed; right here, our intention was to check the proviral DNA in blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestine biopsies had been obtained from two HIV-1 contaminated patients under profitable antiretroviral therapy. Total DNA was extracted together with the proviral DNA. The HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was sequenced in each compartments utilizing subsequent technology sequencing adopted by single genome sequencing; phylogenetic bushes had been established and in contrast. The proviral sequences of each compartments intra-patient exhibited a really low genetic divergence whereas it was potential to distinguish the sequences inter-patients; single genome sequencing analysis of two {couples} of samples confirmed that there was no compartmentalization of the sequences intra-patient.

We conclude that, contemplating these two instances, the proviral DNA sequences in blood and GALT are comparable and that the epitope analysis of HIV-1 provirus in blood must be thought-about as related to that noticed in the GALT, a hard-to-reach main compartment, and can subsequently be used for therapeutic vaccine approaches. Phylogenetically corrected strategies recognized a complete of 161 HLA-associated polymorphisms; whereby Nef and Vpu had the very best (26.6%) and lowest (1.2%) proportion of amino acid websites related to HLA-class I alleles, respectively.

HIV-1 escapes by buying mutations that differentially affect the course of an infection. Unlike HIV-1 structural and enzymatic proteins, it stays elusive what extent the host immune-mediated choice stress influences the variability of the accent (Vif, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef) and regulatory (Tat and Rev) proteins. To tackle this, we analysed the viral sequences encoding accent and regulatory proteins from 446 HLA-typed, chronically HIV-1 subtype B-infected, and remedy naïve people in Japan. We noticed that Vpu and Vpr had been essentially the most and least polymorphic proteins with the common Shannon entropy scores of 0.63 and 0.38, respectively. These outcomes add additional perception on the position of HLA-mediated choice stress on HIV-1 sequence polymorphisms of HIV-1 accent and regulatory proteins.

Per-protocol analysis of the ZINC trial for HIV illness amongst alcohol customers
The Zinc for INflammation and Chronic illness in HIV (ZINC) trial randomized one who reside with HIV (PLWH) who have interaction in heavy ingesting to both each day zinc supplementation or placebo. The main end result was change in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) index, a predictor of mortality, between baseline and 18 months. Because adherence and follow-up had been suboptimal, the intention-to-treat analysis, which was not statistically important, could have underestimated the impact of the zinc supplementation. We estimated the per-protocol impact of zinc versus placebo in the ZINC trial (i.e., the impact that will have been noticed if all contributors had had excessive adherence and none was misplaced to follow-up).
Adherence was measured because the self-reported share of drugs taken in the earlier 6 weeks and assessed in any respect post-baseline visits. We used inverse chance weighting to estimate and examine the change in the VACS index at 18 months in the zinc and placebo teams, had all of the trial contributors had excessive adherence (i.e., cumulative adherence ≥80% at 18 months). To look at tendencies by stage of adherence, we rerun the analyses utilizing thresholds for prime adherence of 70% and 90% of common self-reported tablet protection. Overall, excessive adherence to zinc was related to a decrease VACS rating, however confidence intervals had been huge and crossed 0. Further research with a bigger pattern dimension are wanted to quantify the advantages of zinc supplementation in this inhabitants.
The estimated (95% confidence interval) change in the VACS index was – 2.16 (- 8.07, 3.59) and 5.84 (0.73, 11.80) under excessive adherence and no loss to follow-up in the zinc and placebo teams, respectively. The per-protocol impact estimate of the imply distinction in the change between the zinc and placebo teams was – 8.01 (- 16.42, 0.01), considerably bigger than the intention-to-treat impact distinction in change (- 4.68 (- 9.62, 0.25)), however it was nonetheless not statistically important. The imply distinction in the change between people in the zinc and placebo teams was – 4.07 (- 11.5, 2.75) and -12.34 (- 20.14, -4.14) for prime adherence outlined as 70% and 90% of tablet protection, respectively.
Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 archived DNA in blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue in two patients under antiretroviral therapy
Exclusion of patients residing with HIV from most cancers immune checkpoint inhibitor trials
Emerging retrospective and potential research point out that immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) may be protected and efficient most cancers remedies amongst individuals residing with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH), nevertheless this high-cancer-risk inhabitants has typically been excluded from groundbreaking most cancers ICI trials. Our examine aimed to characterize the present fee of exclusion and conditional inclusion of PLWH in most cancers ICI trials by tumor sort, trial part, and yr. MedicalTrials.gov most cancers ICI trials with deliberate begins between 1/1/2019 and 10/20/2020 had been recognized.
Based on trial eligibility standards, trials had been categorized as “excluded” if PLWH couldn’t enroll, “conditionally included” if solely PLWH with enough immune operate had been allowed, or “included/not specified” if HIV was not talked about in the eligibility standards. Trials from 2014 had been individually collected for comparability over time. The quantity of trials excluding PLWH had been in comparison with the included/not specified group utilizing Fisher’s precise take a look at. Of 809 trials analyzed from 2019 to 2020, 74.4% excluded, 6.9% conditionally included, and 18.7% included/didn’t specify PLWH. Early part trials excluded PLWH extra often than late part trials.

Acetylcholinesterase Activity Assay Kit - 100 Assays

AR4001-unit unit
EUR 317

Amplite™ Colorimetric Beta-Lactamase Activity Assay Kit

12551 200 Tests
EUR 393

EZScreen? Beta-Lactamase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit (384-well)

K954-400
EUR 729

GST Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit

K2108-100 100 assays
EUR 529

Trypsin Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2176-100 100 assays
EUR 447

Amylase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2225-100 100 assays
EUR 390

Aconitase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2226-100 100 assays
EUR 516

Lipase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2227-100 100 assays
EUR 516

ACE1 Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit

K2001-100
EUR 555

Streptokinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K2008-100
EUR 512

Laccase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K2038-100 100 assays
EUR 500

GST Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit

K263-100
EUR 490

HDAC Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K331-100
EUR 490

HAT Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K332-100
EUR 539

Urease Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K378-100
EUR 501

ATPase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K417-100
EUR 430

Transglutaminase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K571-100
EUR 718

Fumarase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K596-100
EUR 653

Sphingomyelinase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K599-100
EUR 446

Aldolase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K665-100
EUR 664

Ceruloplasmin Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K669-100
EUR 550

Invertase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K674-100
EUR 490

Sulfatase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K675-100
EUR 653

?-Glucosidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K690-100
EUR 550

Amylase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K711-100
EUR 408

Aconitase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K716-100
EUR 501

Lipase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K722-100
EUR 512

Tyrosinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K742-100
EUR 582

Arginase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K755-100
EUR 539

Acetylcholinesterase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K764-100
EUR 550

Trypsin Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K771-100
EUR 452

Collagenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K792-100
EUR 408

Plasmin Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K945-100
EUR 446

Cholinesterase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K975-100
EUR 642

Methyltransferase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K986-100
EUR 648

Cytochrome Oxidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2020-100 100 assays
EUR 557

Citrate Synthase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2029-100 100 assays
EUR 557

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit

K2168-100 100 assays
EUR 586

Glutathione Peroxidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2174-100 100 assays
EUR 516

Thioredoxin Reductase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2175-100 100 assays
EUR 502

Catalase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K2177-100 100 assays
EUR 418

Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2206-100 100 assays
EUR 599

Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2210-100 100 assays
EUR 738

Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2229-100 100 assays
EUR 502

Cathepsin G Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K146-100
EUR 582

Phosphoglycerate Kinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K194-100
EUR 533

Phospholipase C Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K2016-100
EUR 588

Methionine Adenosyltransferase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K2033-100 100assays
EUR 682

Sucrose Phosphorylase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K2034-100 100 assays
EUR 551

Cytochrome Oxidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K287-100
EUR 539

Citrate Synthase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K318-100
EUR 539

Gluconokinase (GntK) Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K319-100
EUR 729

Adenosine Deaminase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K321-100
EUR 419

Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K359-100
EUR 550

Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K443-100
EUR 566

Glucose Isomerase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K491-100
EUR 490

Factor XIIIa Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K522-100
EUR 620

Glyoxalase I Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K591-100
EUR 490

Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K654-100
EUR 572

Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K660-100
EUR 697

Oxalate Decarboxylase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K664-100
EUR 642

Enolase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K691-100
EUR 794

Isopropanol Dehydrogenase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K698-100
EUR 485

Lipase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit II

K723-100
EUR 539

Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K729-100
EUR 479

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K731-100
EUR 582

?-N-Acetylglucosaminidase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K733-100
EUR 490

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit

K744-100
EUR 582

Asparaginase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K754-100
EUR 550

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K756-100
EUR 479

Glutathione Peroxidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K762-100
EUR 512

Thioredoxin Reductase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K763-100
EUR 490

PAF Acetylhydrolase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K765-100
EUR 446

Peroxidase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K772-100
EUR 387

Catalase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K773-100
EUR 419

Phosphoglucose Isomerase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K775-100
EUR 523

Phosphofructokinase (PFK) Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K776-100
EUR 784

Glucose Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K786-100
EUR 441

Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K787-100
EUR 550

Sorbitol Dehydrogenase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K935-100
EUR 566

Factor XIa Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K973-100
EUR 615

Alkaline Sphingomyelinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K987-100
EUR 588

5?-Nucleotidase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K992-100
EUR 664

Factor XIIa Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K994-100
EUR 626

Plasma Kallikrein Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K997-100
EUR 620

Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor Screening Kit (Colorimetric)

K804-100
EUR 903

Alpha-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2217-100 100 assays
EUR 1017

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2218-100 100 assays
EUR 641

Pyruvate Kinase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K2223-100 100 assays
EUR 627

Xanthine Oxidase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K2224-100 100 assays
EUR 418

Phosphoglycerate Mutase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric/Fluorometric)

K2007-100
EUR 566

HRV 3C Protease Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K214-100
EUR 566

Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K335-100
EUR 441

Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K472-100
EUR 550

6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K540-100
EUR 615

Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase (PHGDH) Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K569-100
EUR 610

Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K590-100
EUR 512

Succinyl-CoA Synthetase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K597-100
EUR 784
The 2019-2020 trial cohort confirmed no important change in exclusion of PLWH in comparison with 2014. Despite growing proof for protected and efficient ICI use for PLWH, most most cancers ICI trials exclude PLWH and few research allow PLWH to take part, even when HIV is well-controlled.

Effects of Training on HIV Risk Perception, Knowledge and Sexual Behaviour Among Fisherfolks in Two Communities in North Central Nigeria

Effects of Training on HIV Risk Perception, Knowledge and Sexual Behaviour Among Fisherfolks in Two Communities in North Central Nigeria

Fisherfolks take part in unsafe sexual behaviors which may predispose them to HIV an infection. This analysis was designed to evaluate the results of coaching on HIV/AIDS-related test data and sexual conduct amongst fisherfolks in two fishing communities in Nigeria. Respondents had been allotted into Experimental Group (EG, n = 103) and Control Group (CG, n = 105). Data had been collected at baseline utilizing a questionnaire which included questions on socio-demographic traits, sexual conduct amongst others. A 3-day HIV/AIDS test coaching was performed for EG. Fisherfolks in EG and CG with good data had been 16.5% and 54.3%, respectively at baseline.

The quantity elevated to 100.0% in EG than CG (60%) at follow-up. At baseline, fisherfolks in EG and CG with excessive riskperception scores had been 26.2% and 59.0%, respectively; corresponding figures at submit intervention for EG and CG had been 100.0% and 70.0% respectively. Training elevated HIV/AIDS data, improved threat notion and lowered dangerous sexual practices amongst fisherfolks. HIVDR is related to suboptimal virologic suppression and therapy failure, resulting in an elevated threat of HIV transmission to uninfected folks and elevated morbidity and mortality amongst folks residing with HIV.

High charges of HIVDR to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors globally are anticipated to say no with the introduction of the integrase strand switch inhibitors and long-acting mixture regimens, whereas problem stays for HIVDR to different lessons of antiretroviral medicine. There is an pressing want to grasp the character of immune responses towards SARS-CoV-2, to tell risk-mitigation methods for folks residing with HIV (PLWH). We present that almost all of PLWH, managed on ART, mount a practical adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Humoral and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses are comparable between HIV-positive and damaging topics and persist 5-7 months following predominately delicate COVID-19 illness.

Effect of HIV/HAART and Other Clinical Variables on the Oral Mycobiome Using Multivariate Analyses
The oral microbiome is taken into account an necessary issue in well being and illness. We lately reported important results of HIV and a number of different medical variables on the oral bacterial communities in a big cohort of HIV-positive and -negative people. The goal of the current research was to equally analyze the oral mycobiome in the identical cohort. To establish fungi, the interior transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the fungal rRNA genes was sequenced utilizing oral rinse samples from 149 HIV-positive and 88 HIV-negative topics that had beforehand undergone bacterial amplicon sequencing.
Quantitative PCR was carried out for whole fungal content material and whole bacterial content material. Interestingly, samples typically confirmed predominance of a single fungal species with 4 main clusters predominated by Candida albicansCandida dubliniensisMalassezia restricta, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae Quantitative PCR evaluation confirmed the Candida-dominated pattern clusters had considerably increased whole fungal abundance than the Malassezia or Saccharomyces species. Of the 25 medical variables evaluated for potential influences on the oral mycobiome, important results had been related to caries standing, geographical web site of sampling, intercourse, HIV below extremely energetic antiretroviral remedy (HAART), and lacking tooth, in rank order of statistical significance.
Investigating particular interactions between fungi and micro organism in the samples typically confirmed Candida species positively correlated with Firmicutes or Actinobacteria and negatively correlated with FusobacteriaProteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes Our information counsel that the oral mycobiome, whereas various, is commonly dominated by a restricted quantity of species per particular person; is affected by a number of medical variables, together with HIV positivity and HAART; and reveals genera-specific associations with bacterial teams. The oral microbiome is probably going a key aspect of homeostasis in the oral cavity. With >600 bacterial species and >160 fungal species comprising the oral microbiome, influences on its composition can have an effect on each native and systemic well being.
We lately reported important results of HIV and a number of different medical variables on the oral bacterial neighborhood in a big cohort of HIV-positive and -negative topics. We describe right here a complete evaluation of the oral mycobiome in the identical cohort. Similar to the bacterial neighborhood, HIV below extremely energetic antiretroviral remedy (HAART) had a major affect on the mycobiome composition, however with much less affect in comparison with different medical variables. Additionally, not like the oral bacterial microbiome, the oral mycobiome is commonly dominated by a single species with four main clusters of fungal communities. Together, these outcomes counsel the oral mycobiome has distinct properties in contrast with the oral bacterial neighborhood, though each are equally impacted by HIV.
Effects of Training on HIV Risk Perception, Knowledge and Sexual Behaviour Among Fisherfolks in Two Communities in North Central Nigeria

Cytoplasmic CPSF6 Regulates HIV-1 Capsid Trafficking and Infection in a Cyclophilin A-Dependent Manner

Human immunodeficiency virus sort 1 (HIV-1) capsid binds host proteins throughout an infection, together with cleavage and polyadenylation specificity issue 6 (CPSF6) and cyclophilin A (CypA). We observe that HIV-1 an infection induces higher-order CPSF6 formation, and capsid-CPSF6 complexes cotraffic on microtubules. CPSF6-capsid advanced trafficking is impacted by capsid alterations that cut back CPSF6 binding or by extra cytoplasmic CPSF6 expression, each of that are related to decreased HIV-1 an infection. Higher-order CPSF6 complexes bind and disrupt HIV-1 capsid assemblies in vitro Disruption of HIV-1 capsid binding to CypA results in elevated CPSF6 binding and altered capsid trafficking, ensuing in lowered infectivity. Our information reveal an interaction between CPSF6 and CypA that’s necessary for cytoplasmic capsid trafficking and HIV-1 an infection.

We suggest that CypA prevents HIV-1 capsid from prematurely partaking cytoplasmic CPSF6 and that variations in CypA mobile localization and innate immunity could clarify variations in HIV-1 capsid trafficking and uncoating in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. HIV is the causative agent of AIDS, which has no treatment. The protein shell that encases the viral genome, the capsid, is important for HIV replication in cells at a number of steps. HIV capsid has been proven to work together with a number of cell proteins throughout motion to the cell nucleus in a poorly understood course of which will differ throughout an infection of totally different cell varieties.

Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K205-100
EUR 512

OxiSelect AOPP Assay Kit (200 assays)

STA-318 200 assays
EUR 635
Description: Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) are uremic toxins created during oxidative stress through the reaction of plasma proteins with chlorinated oxidants such as chloramines or hypochlorous acid. AOPP levels are elevated in patients with renal complications, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis, as well as HIV-positive patients. Our OxiSelect AOPP Assay Kit provides a convenient method to assess oxidative stress. The kit includes a Chloramine standard and an AOPP Human Serum Albumin conjugate for use as a positive control.

RealQuant Nitric Oxide Assay Kit

N0100-025 250 Assays
EUR 928

QuantiChrom Nitric Oxide Assay Kit

D2NO-100 100
EUR 329
Description: Quantitative determination of nitric oxide by colorimetric (540nm) method. Procedure: 40 min. Kit size: 100 tests. Detection limit: 0.6 µM. Shelf life: 6 months. Shipping: ambient temp; storage: 4°C.

Hemoglobin Colorimetric Assay Kit

K219-200
EUR 381

OxiSelect In Vitro Nitric Oxide (Nitrite / Nitrate) Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

STA-802 100 assays
EUR 432
Description: Cell Biolabs? OxiSelect Nitric Oxide (Nitrite/Nitrate) Assay Kit is a simple, colorimetric assay that quantitatively measures NO in various samples by NO2-/NO3- determination.  First, the nitrate (NO3-) in the sample is converted to nitrite (NO2-) by nitrate reductase enzyme.  Next, total nitrite is detected with Griess Reagents as a colored azo dye product (absorbance 540 nm).  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 100 assays using a 96-well microtiter plate format, including blanks, standards and unknown samples.  The kit is suitable for serum, plasma, urine, saliva, lysates, and media (see Preparation of Samples) with detection sensitivity limit of ~ 2 µM (in 50 µL sample volume). 

OxiSelect In Vitro Nitric Oxide (Nitrite / Nitrate) Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

STA-802-5 5 x 100 assays
EUR 1726
Description: Cell Biolabs? OxiSelect Nitric Oxide (Nitrite/Nitrate) Assay Kit is a simple, colorimetric assay that quantitatively measures NO in various samples by NO2-/NO3- determination.  First, the nitrate (NO3-) in the sample is converted to nitrite (NO2-) by nitrate reductase enzyme.  Next, total nitrite is detected with Griess Reagents as a colored azo dye product (absorbance 540 nm).  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 100 assays using a 96-well microtiter plate format, including blanks, standards and unknown samples.  The kit is suitable for serum, plasma, urine, saliva, lysates, and media (see Preparation of Samples) with detection sensitivity limit of ~ 2 µM (in 50 µL sample volume). 

EnzyChrom Nitric Oxide Synthase Assay Kit

ENOS-100 100
EUR 448
Description: Quantitative determination of nitric oxide synthase activity by colorimetric (540nm) method. Procedure: 40 min. Kit size: 100 tests. Detection limit: 0.25 U/L. Shelf life: 3 months. Shipping: on ice; storage: -20 & 4°C.

Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) enzyme assay, colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1290-NOS-1 1 kit
EUR 651

Caspase-3 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2008-200 200 assays
EUR 696

Caspase-1 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2011-200 200 assays
EUR 696

Caspase-8 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2013-200 200 assays
EUR 696

Caspase-6 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2015-200 200 assays
EUR 696

Caspase-2 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2017-200 200 assays
EUR 725

Caspase-9 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2019-200 200 assays
EUR 696

Caspase-5 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2196-200 200 assays
EUR 725

Caspase-10 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2197-200 200 assays
EUR 738

Caspase-4 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2199-200 200 assays
EUR 738

Caspase-3 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K106-200
EUR 631

Caspase-1 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K111-200
EUR 620

Caspase-8 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K113-200
EUR 620

Caspase-6 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K115-200
EUR 615

Caspase-2 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K117-200
EUR 615

Caspase-9 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K119-200
EUR 620

Caspase-5 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K123-200
EUR 615

Caspase-10 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K125-200
EUR 615

Caspase-4 Colorimetric Assay Kit

K127-200
EUR 615

Phenolic Compounds Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K527-200
EUR 550

Nitric Oxide Colorimteric Detection kit (Two Plates)

K023-H1 2 x 96 well plate
EUR 273

Nitric Oxide Cell-Based HTS Assay Kit

K979-100
EUR 653

ATP-GloTM Bioluminometric Cell Viability Assay Kit (200 assays)

30020-1 1KIT
EUR 190
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

Glutathione Reductase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2173-200 200 assays
EUR 516

Hydrogen Peroxide Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K265-200
EUR 381

Glutathione Reductase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K761-200
EUR 512

Nitric Oxide (NO/nitrate/nitrite) colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1280-NOX-1 1 kit
EUR 529

Glutathione Colorimetric Detection kit (200 High Cuvettes)

K006-H1C-H 200 Cuvette
EUR 471

Glutathione Colorimetric Detection kit (200 Low Cuvettes)

K006-H1C-L 200 Cuvette
EUR 471

OxiSelect Intracellular Nitric Oxide (NO) Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

STA-800 96 assays
EUR 490
Description: The OxiSelect Intracellular Nitric Oxide Assay Kit is a cell-based assay for rapid detection of intracellular NO or NOS activity in cultured cells.  In brief, the cell-permeant NO probe passively diffuses into cells and is deacetylated by cellular esterases to a non-fluorescent intermediate.  When intracellular nitric oxide encounters this intermediate, it rapidly oxidizes to a highly fluorescent, triazolo-fluorescein analog.  The fluorescence intensity is proportional to the NO levels within the cell cytosol (detection limit of ~3 nM).  The kit?s provided Nitric Oxide Fluorometric Probe is NO specific, has excellent photostablity and pH stability, and is detected with standard fluorescein filters.  The probe is suitable for flow cytometry, fluorescent microscopy, and fluorescent microplate detection.  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 96 assays, including blanks, standards, and unknown samples.

OxiSelect Intracellular Nitric Oxide (NO) Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

STA-800-5 5 x 96 assays
EUR 1923
Description: The OxiSelect Intracellular Nitric Oxide Assay Kit is a cell-based assay for rapid detection of intracellular NO or NOS activity in cultured cells.  In brief, the cell-permeant NO probe passively diffuses into cells and is deacetylated by cellular esterases to a non-fluorescent intermediate.  When intracellular nitric oxide encounters this intermediate, it rapidly oxidizes to a highly fluorescent, triazolo-fluorescein analog.  The fluorescence intensity is proportional to the NO levels within the cell cytosol (detection limit of ~3 nM).  The kit?s provided Nitric Oxide Fluorometric Probe is NO specific, has excellent photostablity and pH stability, and is detected with standard fluorescein filters.  The probe is suitable for flow cytometry, fluorescent microscopy, and fluorescent microplate detection.  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 96 assays, including blanks, standards, and unknown samples.

Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K206-100
EUR 512

Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K515-200
EUR 550

hydroxyproline assay kit 96-assays

QZBhypro1 1 plate 96 assays
EUR 323

AccuOrangeâ„¢ Protein Quantitation Kit, 200 assays

30071-T 1KIT
EUR 101
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

Nitric Oxide Detection Kit

SKT-212-96 2 plates of 96 wells
EUR 342
Description: Indirect Colorimetric assay used for quantitative measuring Nitrate and Nitrite present in a variety of samples in Serum, Plasma, Urine, Saliva, Water, Buffer, Cell Lysates, Tissue Culture Media samples from all species

Nitric oxide generation kit

00239 1SET
EUR 311
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1SET

Caspase-3 DEVD-R110 Fluorometric and Colorimetric Assay Kit (100 assays)

30008-2 1KIT
EUR 383
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

Caspase-8 IETD-R110 Fluorometric and Colorimetric Assay Kit (25 assays)

30011-1 1KIT
EUR 204
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

Caspase-8 IETD-R110 Fluorometric and Colorimetric Assay Kit (100 assays)

30011-2 1KIT
EUR 383
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

Amplite™ Fluorimetric Extracellular Nitric Oxide (NO) Activity Assay Kit

16365 100 Tests
EUR 350

OxiSelect In Vitro Nitric Oxide (Nitrite / Nitrate) Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

STA-801 100 assays
EUR 473
Description: Cell Biolabs? OxiSelect Nitric Oxide (Nitrite/Nitrate) Assay Kit is a simple, colorimetric assay that quantitatively measures NO in various samples by NO2-/NO3- determination.  First, the nitrate (NO3-) in the sample is converted to nitrite (NO2-) by nitrate reductase enzyme.  Next, total nitrite is detected with Griess Reagents as a colored azo dye product (absorbance 540 nm).  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 100 assays using a 96-well microtiter plate format, including blanks, standards and unknown samples.  The kit is suitable for serum, plasma, urine, saliva, lysates, and media (see Preparation of Samples) with detection sensitivity limit of ~ 2 µM (in 50 µL sample volume). 

OxiSelect In Vitro Nitric Oxide (Nitrite / Nitrate) Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

STA-801-5 5 x 100 assays
EUR 1819
Description: Cell Biolabs? OxiSelect Nitric Oxide (Nitrite/Nitrate) Assay Kit is a simple, colorimetric assay that quantitatively measures NO in various samples by NO2-/NO3- determination.  First, the nitrate (NO3-) in the sample is converted to nitrite (NO2-) by nitrate reductase enzyme.  Next, total nitrite is detected with Griess Reagents as a colored azo dye product (absorbance 540 nm).  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 100 assays using a 96-well microtiter plate format, including blanks, standards and unknown samples.  The kit is suitable for serum, plasma, urine, saliva, lysates, and media (see Preparation of Samples) with detection sensitivity limit of ~ 2 µM (in 50 µL sample volume). 

soluble collagen assay kit 96-assays

QZBcol1-1 1 plate 96 assays
EUR 334

hydroxyproline assay kit 2x 96-assays

QZBhypro2 2 plates 192 assays
EUR 590

total collagen assay kit 96-assays

QZBtotcol1 1 plate 96 assays
EUR 334

total protein assay kit 96-assays

QZBtotprot1 1 plate 96 assays
EUR 288

Acetylcholinesterase Activity Assay Kit - 100 Assays

AR4001-unit unit
EUR 317

Live Bacterial Gram Stain Kit - 200 assays

32000-1 1kit
EUR 190
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1kit

CASPASE3 DEVDR110 ASSAY (25 ASSAYS)

30008-1 1KIT
EUR 204
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

soluble collagen assay kit 2x 96-assays

QZBcol1-2 2 plates 192 assays
EUR 614

soluble collagen assay kit 5x 96-assays

QZBcol1-5 5 plates 480 assays
EUR 1196

sensitive tissue collagen assay kit 96-assays

QZBtiscol1 1 plate 96 assays
EUR 411

total collagen assay kit 2x 96-assays

QZBtotcol2 2 plates 192 assays
EUR 614

total protein assay kit 2x 96-assays

QZBtotprot2 2 plates 192 assays
EUR 527

MTT Cell Viability Assay Kit (1000 assays)

30006 1KIT
EUR 204
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

Resazurin Cell Viability Assay Kit (2500 assays)

30025-1 1KIT
EUR 181
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

Lactate Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5012 100 assays
EUR 450
Description: Our Lactate Assay Kit measures L-lactate in biological samples. Lactate is first oxidized by lactate oxidase, yielding pyruvate and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide released from this reaction is specifically detected by either a colorimetric or fluorometric probe in a 1:1 ratio. Lactate levels in unknown samples are determined based on a lactate standard curve.

Glycogen Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5022 100 assays
EUR 479
Description: Our Glycogen Assay Kit (Fluorometric) measures glycogen in serum, plasma, urine, lysates, and cell culture supernatants. First, glycogen is broken down into glucose monomers by amyloglucosidase. Glucose is then oxidized by glucose oxidase, producing D-gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide reacts specifically with the kit?s Fluorometric Probe and is detected at ex. 530-570 nm/em. 590-600 nm. Glycogen levels in unknown samples are determined based on the provided glycogen standard curve.

Starch Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5025 100 assays
EUR 479
Description: Our Starch Assay Kit (Colorimetric) measures starch in food samples. First, starch is broken down into glucose monomers by amyloglucosidase. Glucose is then oxidized by glucose oxidase, producing D-gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide reacts specifically with the kit?s Colorimetric Probe and is detected with a spectrophotometric plate reader at 540-570nm. Starch levels in unknown samples are determined based on the provided starch standard curve.

Choline Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5043 96 assays
EUR 473
Description: Cell Biolabs? Choline Assay Kits are simple assays that measure the amount of choline present in a variety of sample types in a convenient 96-well microtiter plate format.  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 96 assays, including blanks, acetylcholine standards and samples.  Sample choline concentrations are determined by comparison with a known choline standard and measured on a colorimetric plate reader.

Glutamate Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5080 200 assays
EUR 490

Acetylcholine Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

STA-603 96 assays
EUR 473
Description: Cell Biolabs? Acetylcholine Assay Kits are a simple fluorometric or colorimetric assay that measures the amount of acetylcholine present in plasma or serum, tissue homogenates, or cell suspensionsin a 96-well microtiter plate format.  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 96 assays, including blanks, acetylcholine standards and samples.  Sample acetylcholine concentrations are determined by comparison with a known acetylcholine standard.

Alcohol Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

STA-620 100 assays
EUR 519
Description: Cell Biolabs? Alcohol Assay Kits measure primary alcohols by an enzymatic, oxidation reaction, producing hydrogen peroxide which reacts with the kit?s probe. These assay kits come in either colorimetric or fluorometric. The colorimetric assay has a detection sensitivity limit of ~30 µM (0.0001 % w/v) and the fluorometric has a detection sensitivity limit of ~15 µM (0.00007 % w/v). They can detect various primary alcohols and are not ethanol specific.

Glucose Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

STA-680 500 assays
EUR 537
Description: The Glucose Assay Kit (Colorimetric) measures total glucose present in food or biological samples. Glucose Oxidase first oxidizes glucose, generating hydrogen peroxide that is detected by a colorimetric probe.

Calcium Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2067-250 250 assays
EUR 432

Magnesium Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2068-100 100 assays
EUR 502

Iron Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2069-100 100 assays
EUR 544

Phosphate Colorimetric Assay Kit

k2074-500 500 assays
EUR 293

Hydroxyproline Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2083-100 100 assays
EUR 599

Glutamine Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2084-100 100 assays
EUR 641

Glutathione Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2106-100 100 assays
EUR 529

Glutamate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2133-100 100 assays
EUR 544

Malate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2139-100 100 assays
EUR 502

Hexokinase Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2179-100 100 assays
EUR 627

Acetoacetate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2204-100 100 assays
EUR 795

Acetate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2209-100 100 assays
EUR 529

Heme Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2215-100 100 assays
EUR 502

Iodide Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2037-100 100assays
EUR 510

Hydroxyurea Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2046-100 100 assays
EUR 581

AMP Colorimetric Assay Kit

K229-100
EUR 577

Glutathione Colorimetric Assay Kit

K261-100
EUR 512

Ammonia Colorimetric Assay Kit

K370-100
EUR 539

Urea Colorimetric Assay Kit

K375-100
EUR 539

In this research, we present that untimely or an excessive amount of binding of one human protein, cleavage and polyadenylation specificity issue 6 (CPSF6), disrupts the power of the capsid to ship the viral genome to the cell nucleus. Another human protein, cyclophilin A (CypA), can defend HIV capsid from untimely binding to CPSF6, which may differ in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Better understanding of how HIV infects cells will enable higher medicine to stop or inhibit an infection and pathogenesis.