Motivations to use hormonal contraceptive methods and condoms among HIV-positive and negative women randomized to a progestin contraceptive in Malawi: a qualitative study

Motivations to use hormonal contraceptive methods and condoms among HIV-positive and negative women randomized to a progestin contraceptive in Malawi: a qualitative study
Although many international locations have been selling hormonal contraceptives to stop unintended being pregnant and condom use to stop HIV transmission, little is understood about how women focused by these messages have interpreted and internalized them. We describe HIV-positive and negative women’s understanding of the advantages of contraception and condoms and their motivations to use them. This is a qualitative sub-study from a scientific trial evaluating the results of progestin contraception on HIV-positive and negative women aged 18-45 years randomly assigned to depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injection or levonorgestrel (LNG) implant.
We purposively recruited 41 women to take part in in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) after randomization into the principle study. We carried out a complete of 30 IDIs and 6 FGDs comprised of 4-7 women (N = 32). All women had been counselled about potential dangers for HIV acquisition/transmission with progestin-only contraception, drug-drug interactions between the implant and efavirenz-based ART, and the necessity to use condoms with their assigned contraceptive to assist stop being pregnant and HIV acquisition and transmission.
All women understood that HIV is transmitted via unprotected intercourse and that HIV transmission will be prevented via condom use however not DMPA injection or LNG implant use. Nearly all HIV-positive women knew or suspected that their companions had been additionally HIV-positive and had been most in utilizing condoms to stop an infection with a drug-resistant HIV pressure to preserve their HIV viral load low. Almost all reported that their companions agreed to condom use, however few used them constantly. Most women believed that condoms had been efficient at stopping each HIV and being pregnant if used constantly.
Nearly all women thought of contraception and condom use as essential in stopping unintended being pregnant and HIV as a result of associate disclosure of HIV standing is low. Our outcomes confirmed that each HIV-positive and negative women understood modes of HIV transmission and prevention and had been conscious that hormonal contraceptives are solely efficient for stopping being pregnant and not HIV. Although each HIV-negative and constructive women had been motivated to use condoms to stop each HIV acquisition and an infection with different HIV strains respectively, all of them confronted challenges from their companions in utilizing condoms constantly.

Multi-level issues for optimum implementation of long-acting injectable antiretroviral remedy to deal with individuals residing with HIV: views of well being care suppliers collaborating in part Three trials

Long-acting injectable antiretroviral remedy (LA ART) has been proven to be non-inferior to each day oral ART, with excessive affected person satisfaction and choice to oral customary of care in analysis to date, and has lately been accepted for use in the United States and Europe. This study examined the views of well being care suppliers collaborating in LA ART scientific trials on potential obstacles and options to LA ART roll-out into actual world settings. This evaluation attracts on two knowledge sources: (1) open-ended questions embedded in a structured on-line survey of 329 well being care suppliers collaborating in the ATLAS-2 M trial throughout 13 international locations; and (2) in-depth interviews with 14 suppliers collaborating in FLAIR/ ATLAS/ATLAS-2 M trials in the United States and Spain.
 Barriers and proposed options to LA ART implementation had been recognized on the particular person, clinic and well being system ranges. Provider perceptions of affected person stage obstacles included challenges with adhering to frequent injection appointments and injection tolerability. Proposed options included affected person training, having designated workers for clinic go to retention, and clinic flexibility with appointment scheduling. The most important supplier concern was figuring out applicable candidates for LA ART; proposed options centered on affected person supplier communication and choice making. Clinic stage obstacles included the necessity for added expert people to administer injections, shifts in workflow as demand will increase and the logistics of cold-chain storage.
Proposed options included workers hiring and coaching, strategic planning round workflow and logistics, and the potential of providing injections in different settings, together with the house. Health system stage obstacles included price and approvals from nationwide regulatory our bodies. Potential options included governments subsidizing therapy, guaranteeing price is aggressive with oral ART, and providing co-pay help. Results counsel the significance of multi-level assist techniques to optimize patient-provider communication and therapy decision-making; clinic staffing, workflow, logistics protocols and infrastructure; and cost-related elements inside a given well being system.
Motivations to use hormonal contraceptive methods and condoms among HIV-positive and negative women randomized to a progestin contraceptive in Malawi: a qualitative study

Using Incentives and Nudging to Improve Non-Targeted HIV Testing in Ecuador: A Randomized Trial

Under-detection of HIV/AIDS nonetheless burdens many low- and middle-income international locations (LMICs). Our randomized trial investigated the results of economic incentives and a behavioral nudge to induce HIV testing and studying HIV standing in Ecuador. In the management group, 12.2% of members agreed to testing, and 5.3% discovered outcomes. A monetary incentive paid at testing elevated the fraction of members examined by 50.1 share factors (95% CI 38.8 to 61.4) and the fraction who discovered their standing by 8.9 share factors (95% CI 5.3 to 12.5); the nudge had no impact.

LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
K6330400 400 assays
EUR 306
Description: Premade ready to use kits will always come in handy. Get your experiment done right form the first try by using a validated kit with perfectly balanced reagents proportions and compatibility and by following a clear protocol.
LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
55R-1366 400 assays
EUR 519
Description: Assay Kit for detection of LDH Cytotoxicity in the research laboratory
LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
55R-1368 500 assays
EUR 570
Description: Assay Kit for detection of LDH Cytotoxicity in the research laboratory
CytoSelect LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
CBA-241 960 assays
EUR 403
Description: Cell Biolabs? CytoSelect LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit provides a colorimetric format for measuring and monitoring cell cytotoxicity.  The kit contains sufficient reagents for the evaluation of 960 assays in 96-well plates.  Cells can be plated and then treated with compounds or agents that affect cell viability.  Upon cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a soluble enzyme found in the cytoplasm, is released into the growth media.  The growth media is then transferred to another plate and the released LDH is then detected with cytotoxicity reagent.  In the presence of lactate substrate (included in the LDH Cytotoxicity Reagent) LDH converts lactate to pyruvate and generates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH).   The WST-1 molecule, also present in the LDH Cytotoxicity Reagent, is converted from WST-1 to the orange formazan form.  An increase in cell cytotoxicity is accompanied by increased LDH release and increased colorimetric signal.  The assay principles are basic and can be applied to most eukaryotic cell lines, including adherent and non-adherent cells and certain tissues, depending on LDH expression levels.  The LDH Cytotoxicity Reagent can be used to detect cytotoxicity in bacteria, yeast, fungi, protozoa as well as cultured mammalian and piscine cells.
PicoProbe? LDH-Cytotoxicity Fluorometric Assay Kit
K314-500
EUR 419
QuantiChrom? LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (C2LD-100)
C2LD-100 100
EUR 127.43
Description: Quantitative determination of cytotoxicity based on cellular lactate dehydrogenase release into cell culture medium by colorimetric (565nm) method. Procedure: 30 min. Kit size: 100 tests. Detection limit: 2 U/L. Shelf life: 6 months. Shipping: ambient tem
Caspase-3 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2008-400 400 assays
EUR 1086
Caspase-1 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2011-400 400 assays
EUR 1086
Caspase-8 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2013-400 400 assays
EUR 1086
Caspase-6 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2015-400 400 assays
EUR 1101
Caspase-2 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2017-400 400 assays
EUR 1156
Caspase-9 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2019-400 400 assays
EUR 1156
Caspase-5 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2196-400 400 assays
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Caspase-10 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2197-400 400 assays
EUR 1114
Caspase-4 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2199-400 400 assays
EUR 1114
Caspase-3 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K106-400
EUR 958
Caspase-1 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K111-400
EUR 958
Caspase-8 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K113-400
EUR 958
Caspase-6 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K115-400
EUR 958
Caspase-2 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K117-400
EUR 958
Caspase-9 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K119-400
EUR 958
Caspase-5 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K123-400
EUR 958
Caspase-10 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K125-400
EUR 958
Caspase-4 Colorimetric Assay Kit
K127-400
EUR 958
Sulforhodamine B Cell Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)
K943-1000
EUR 316
EZScreen? ATP Colorimetric Assay Kit (384-well)
K959-400
EUR 593
EZScreen? Glycogen Colorimetric Assay Kit (384-Well)
K960-400
EUR 648
Cell Meter™ Colorimetric Cell Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
22780 1000 Tests
EUR 219
EZScreen? Triglyceride Quantification Colorimetric Assay Kit (384-well)
K952-400
EUR 626
EZScreen? NAD+/NADH Colorimetric Assay Kit (384-well)
K958-400
EUR 648
EZScreen? Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit (384-well)
K953-400
EUR 555
EZScreen? Beta-Lactamase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit (384-well)
K954-400
EUR 729
EZScreen? Free Fatty Acid Colorimetric Assay Kit (384-well)
K956-400
EUR 648
EnzyLight Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
ECTX-100 100
EUR 275
Description: Rapid, bioluminescent luciferin/luciferase based assay for cell viability, proliferation, cytotoxcity, high-throµghput screening for anticancer agents. Procedure: 2 min. Kit size: 100 tests. Detection limit: 50 cells. Shelf life: 6 months. Shipping: on ic
Bioluminescence Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
K312-500
EUR 245
Bioluminescence Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
55R-1367 500 assays
EUR 312
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Bioluminescence Cytotoxicity in the research laboratory
Amplite™ Colorimetric D-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Assay Kit
13809 200 Tests
EUR 306
Amplite™ Colorimetric L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Assay Kit
13813 200 Tests
EUR 306
EZScreen? Total Cholesterol & Cholesteryl Ester Colorimetric Assay Kit (384-Well)
K957-400
EUR 599
hydroxyproline assay kit 96-assays
QZBhypro1 1 plate 96 assays
EUR 323
AK Bioluminescence Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
K2026-500 500 assays
EUR 266
Caspase-3 DEVD-R110 Fluorometric and Colorimetric Assay Kit (100 assays)
30008-2 1KIT
EUR 383
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT
Caspase-8 IETD-R110 Fluorometric and Colorimetric Assay Kit (25 assays)
30011-1 1KIT
EUR 204
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT
Caspase-8 IETD-R110 Fluorometric and Colorimetric Assay Kit (100 assays)
30011-2 1KIT
EUR 383
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT
Acetylcholinesterase Activity Assay Kit - 100 Assays
AR4001-unit unit
EUR 317
soluble collagen assay kit 96-assays
QZBcol1-1 1 plate 96 assays
EUR 334
hydroxyproline assay kit 2x 96-assays
QZBhypro2 2 plates 192 assays
EUR 590
total collagen assay kit 96-assays
QZBtotcol1 1 plate 96 assays
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total protein assay kit 96-assays
QZBtotprot1 1 plate 96 assays
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OxiSelect AOPP Assay Kit (200 assays)
STA-318 200 assays
EUR 635
Description: Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) are uremic toxins created during oxidative stress through the reaction of plasma proteins with chlorinated oxidants such as chloramines or hypochlorous acid. AOPP levels are elevated in patients with renal complications, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis, as well as HIV-positive patients. Our OxiSelect AOPP Assay Kit provides a convenient method to assess oxidative stress. The kit includes a Chloramine standard and an AOPP Human Serum Albumin conjugate for use as a positive control.
CASPASE3 DEVDR110 ASSAY (25 ASSAYS)
30008-1 1KIT
EUR 204
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT
Crystal Violet Cell Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
K329-1000
EUR 316
Neutral Red Cell Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
K447-1000
EUR 316
Acid Phosphatase Cell Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
K937-500
EUR 370
EnzyChrom Kinase Assay Kit
EKIN-400 400
EUR 297
Description: Rapid mix-and-measure procedure for determination of kinase activity and high-throµghput screening for kinase inhibitors by fluorimetric (530nm/590nm) method. Procedure: 10 min. Kit size: 400 tests. Detection limit: 0.01 U/L. Shelf life: 6 months. Shippin
Mouse Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) ELISA Kit
DLR-LDH-Mu-48T 48T
EUR 508
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates or other biological fluids.
Mouse Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) ELISA Kit
DLR-LDH-Mu-96T 96T
EUR 661
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates or other biological fluids.
Mouse Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) ELISA Kit
RDR-LDH-Mu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 534
Mouse Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) ELISA Kit
RDR-LDH-Mu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 742
Mouse Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) ELISA Kit
RD-LDH-Mu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 511
Mouse Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) ELISA Kit
RD-LDH-Mu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 709
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Activity Assay Kit
K2228-500 500 assays
EUR 529
soluble collagen assay kit 2x 96-assays
QZBcol1-2 2 plates 192 assays
EUR 614
soluble collagen assay kit 5x 96-assays
QZBcol1-5 5 plates 480 assays
EUR 1196
sensitive tissue collagen assay kit 96-assays
QZBtiscol1 1 plate 96 assays
EUR 411
total collagen assay kit 2x 96-assays
QZBtotcol2 2 plates 192 assays
EUR 614
total protein assay kit 2x 96-assays
QZBtotprot2 2 plates 192 assays
EUR 527
MTT Cell Viability Assay Kit (1000 assays)
30006 1KIT
EUR 204
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT
Resazurin Cell Viability Assay Kit (2500 assays)
30025-1 1KIT
EUR 181
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT
Lactate Assay Kit (Colorimetric)
MET-5012 100 assays
EUR 450
Description: Our Lactate Assay Kit measures L-lactate in biological samples. Lactate is first oxidized by lactate oxidase, yielding pyruvate and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide released from this reaction is specifically detected by either a colorimetric or fluorometric probe in a 1:1 ratio. Lactate levels in unknown samples are determined based on a lactate standard curve.
Glycogen Assay Kit (Colorimetric)
MET-5022 100 assays
EUR 479
Description: Our Glycogen Assay Kit (Fluorometric) measures glycogen in serum, plasma, urine, lysates, and cell culture supernatants. First, glycogen is broken down into glucose monomers by amyloglucosidase. Glucose is then oxidized by glucose oxidase, producing D-gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide reacts specifically with the kit?s Fluorometric Probe and is detected at ex. 530-570 nm/em. 590-600 nm. Glycogen levels in unknown samples are determined based on the provided glycogen standard curve.
Starch Assay Kit (Colorimetric)
MET-5025 100 assays
EUR 479
Description: Our Starch Assay Kit (Colorimetric) measures starch in food samples. First, starch is broken down into glucose monomers by amyloglucosidase. Glucose is then oxidized by glucose oxidase, producing D-gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide reacts specifically with the kit?s Colorimetric Probe and is detected with a spectrophotometric plate reader at 540-570nm. Starch levels in unknown samples are determined based on the provided starch standard curve.
Choline Assay Kit (Colorimetric)
MET-5043 96 assays
EUR 473
Description: Cell Biolabs? Choline Assay Kits are simple assays that measure the amount of choline present in a variety of sample types in a convenient 96-well microtiter plate format.  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 96 assays, including blanks, acetylcholine standards and samples.  Sample choline concentrations are determined by comparison with a known choline standard and measured on a colorimetric plate reader.
Glutamate Assay Kit (Colorimetric)
MET-5080 200 assays
EUR 490
Acetylcholine Assay Kit (Colorimetric)
STA-603 96 assays
EUR 473
Description: Cell Biolabs? Acetylcholine Assay Kits are a simple fluorometric or colorimetric assay that measures the amount of acetylcholine present in plasma or serum, tissue homogenates, or cell suspensionsin a 96-well microtiter plate format.  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 96 assays, including blanks, acetylcholine standards and samples.  Sample acetylcholine concentrations are determined by comparison with a known acetylcholine standard.
Alcohol Assay Kit (Colorimetric)
STA-620 100 assays
EUR 519
Description: Cell Biolabs? Alcohol Assay Kits measure primary alcohols by an enzymatic, oxidation reaction, producing hydrogen peroxide which reacts with the kit?s probe. These assay kits come in either colorimetric or fluorometric. The colorimetric assay has a detection sensitivity limit of ~30 µM (0.0001 % w/v) and the fluorometric has a detection sensitivity limit of ~15 µM (0.00007 % w/v). They can detect various primary alcohols and are not ethanol specific.
Glucose Assay Kit (Colorimetric)
STA-680 500 assays
EUR 537
Description: The Glucose Assay Kit (Colorimetric) measures total glucose present in food or biological samples. Glucose Oxidase first oxidizes glucose, generating hydrogen peroxide that is detected by a colorimetric probe.
Calcium Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2067-250 250 assays
EUR 432
Magnesium Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2068-100 100 assays
EUR 502
Iron Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2069-100 100 assays
EUR 544
Phosphate Colorimetric Assay Kit
k2074-500 500 assays
EUR 293
Hydroxyproline Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2083-100 100 assays
EUR 599
Glutamine Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2084-100 100 assays
EUR 641
Glutathione Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2106-100 100 assays
EUR 529
Glutamate Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2133-100 100 assays
EUR 544
Malate Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2139-100 100 assays
EUR 502
Hexokinase Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2179-100 100 assays
EUR 627
Acetoacetate Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2204-100 100 assays
EUR 795
Acetate Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2209-100 100 assays
EUR 529
Heme Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2215-100 100 assays
EUR 502
Iodide Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2037-100 100assays
EUR 510
Hydroxyurea Colorimetric Assay Kit
K2046-100 100 assays
EUR 581
Hemoglobin Colorimetric Assay Kit
K219-200
EUR 381
AMP Colorimetric Assay Kit
K229-100
EUR 577
Glutathione Colorimetric Assay Kit
K261-100
EUR 512
Ammonia Colorimetric Assay Kit
K370-100
EUR 539

The HIV-positive price was 1.2% in the management group, and incentives prompted a 4.7 share level (95% CI 0.5 to 8.9) increased proportion of HIV-positive detection. Incentives additionally induced earlier testing, suggesting diminished procrastination. This means that info with appropriately timed small monetary incentives can enhance HIV testing and detection of recent instances in the overall inhabitants in LMIC settings. Both assessments explored supplier views and clinic dynamics associated to the introduction of LA ART and had been analyzed utilizing thematic content material evaluation. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was drawn on because the conceptual framework underpinning improvement of a mannequin depicting study findings.